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Thesis formulator

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Photostability studies of drugs and drug products are an integral part of the product development process in the pharmaceutical industry.

These studies are carried out to ensure quality, efficacy, and safety of the formulated products during manufacture, storage, and use. This review deals with the concept of photostability and related aspects and the literature available in the field.

It highlights the role of the photochemistry in the photostability studies, describes the functional groups important for the photoreactivity of drugs, explains photophysical processes, and deals with the kinetics of photochemical reactions.

The various modes of photodegradation of drugs with examples of selected compounds are presented.

Thesis formulator

The biological consequences of the effect of light on the drug degradation are described. The photostability testing of drugs and drug products and the requirements under ICH guideline are discussed. Some information on the packaging requirements for the formulated products is provided.

The various methods used for the photostabilization of solid and liquid dosage forms are also discussed. Introduction A large number of drugs are sensitive to light [ 12 ] and therefore their formulated products may degrade during manufacturing, storage, and administration.

This may result in potency loss, altered efficacy, and adverse biological effects. The European Pharmacopoeia [ 3 ] prescribes light protection for more than drugs and adjuvants. Knowledge of the photochemical behavior of drugs can provide guidance for handling, packaging, and labeling of drug products.

The use of the appropriate containers and packaging material can protect the products from the deleterious effects of light. The sensitivity of a drug to a particular spectral region of light may vary with its chemical structure, photoreactivity, and nature of the dosage form.

The study of the photochemical reactions may provide information on the mode of stabilization of the active ingredients in a product. These reactions are often complex and involve free radical species that form photoproducts [ 4 — 6 ].

Photosensitized reactions may also lead to the degradation of the drug substances [ 6 ]. The photoproducts of a drug may be harmful and cause phototoxic, photoallergic, or photosensitization reactions upon administration [ 7 — 9 ].

These reactions may also be initiated by the interaction of a drug with endogenous substances in the body in the presence of light. The evaluation of the photochemical stability of drugs and drug products is an essential component of the formulation development process in the pharmaceutical industry.

Several monographs [ 10 — 12 ], details [ 13 — 23 ], and reviews [ 24 — 29 ] have been published on the photochemistry, photostability, and related aspects of the drugs and drug products.

Information on the photosensitivity, photostability, and storage of pharmaceuticals is also provided in the pharmacopoeias [ 1 — 3 ] and other literature [ 143031 ]. Photostability The photostability of a drug substance may be defined as the response of the drug or drug product to the exposure to solar, UV, and visible light in the solid, semisolid, or liquid state that leads to a physical or chemical change.Nashi (Russian: Молодежное демократическое aнтифашистское движение «Наши», Molodezhnoye demokraticheskoye antifashistskoye dvizhenye "Nashi" Youth Democratic Anti-Fascist Movement "Ours!") was a political youth movement in Russia, which declared itself to be a democratic, anti-fascist, anti-'oligarchic-capitalist' movement.

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the construction of a thesis including the order and presentation of materials and the formatting of headings. Departmental format requirements cover such matters as how tables and figures are Thesis Formatting Guidelines Author: School of Education Created Date.

Thesis formulator

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Theme: Global Patient Care – Restoring Health Naturally The International Congress on Naturopathic Medicine ICNM scientific committee and the executive organizing committee is working together to present an exceptional programme in line with our commitment to innovation, expertise and excellence.

Jean Bodin (c. —) The humanist philosopher and jurist Jean Bodin was one of the most prominent political thinkers of the sixteenth century.

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