Cause[ edit ] Fetal alcohol syndrome usually occurs when a pregnant woman has more than four standard drinks per day.
Those who practise abstinence from alcohol are termed "abstainers", "total abstainers", or-in a more old-fashioned formulation-"teetotallers". The term "current abstainer", often used in population surveys, is usually defined as a person who has not drunk an alcoholic beverage in the preceding 12 months; this definition does not necessarily coincide with a respondent's self-description as an abstainer.
The term "abstinence" should not be confused with "abstinence syndrome, an older term for withdrawal syndrome.
It is a residual category, with dependence taking precedence when applicable. The term "abuse" is sometimes used disapprovingly to refer to any use at all, particularly of illicit drugs. Because of its ambiguity, the term is not used in ICD-I0 except in the case of non-dependence-producing substances- see below ; harmful use and hazardous use are the equivalent terms In WHO usage, although they usually relate only to effects on health and not to social consequences.
In other contexts, abuse has referred to non-medical or unsanctioned patterns of use, irrespective of consequences. Under international drug control treaties see conventions, international drug WHO is responsible for determining the abuse liability and dependence potential, as distinct from therapeutic usefulness, of controlled substances.
This category might more appropriately be termed "misuse of non- psychoactive substances" compare misuse, The characteristics and dangers of fetal alcohol syndrome or alcohol.
In ICD-I0, this diagnosis is included within the section "Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors" F5O-F A wide variety of prescription drugs, proprietary over-the-counter drugs, and herbal and folk remedies may be involved. The particularly important groups are 1 psychotropic drugs that do not produce dependence, such as antidepressants and neuroleptics; 2 laxatives misuse of which is termed the "laxative habit" ; 3 analgesics that may be purchased without medical prescription, such as aspirin acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol acetaminophen ; 4 steroids and other hormones; 5 vitamins; and 6 Antacids.
These substances do not typically have pleasurable psychic effects, yet attempts to discourage or forbid their use are met with resistance.
These substances do not have dependence potential in the sense of intrinsic pharmalogical effects, but are capable of inducing psychological dependence. Acetaldehyde is formed by oxidation of ethanol.
Acetaldehyde is formed by oxidation of ethanol, the reaction being catalysed principally by alcohol dehydrogenase. It is itself oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance, implicated in the alcohol flush reaction and in certain physical sequelae of alcohol consumption.
Typically, tolerance is prominent and a withdrawal syndrome frequently occurs when substance use is interrupted.
The life of the addict may be dominated by substance use to the virtual exclusion of all other activities and responsibilities.
The term addiction also conveys the sense that such substance use has a detrimental effect on society, as well as on the individual; when applied to the use of alcohol, it is equivalent to alcoholism. Addiction is a term of long-standing and variable usage. It is regarded by many as a discrete disease entity, a debilitating disorder rooted in the pharmacological effects of the drug, which is remorselessly progressive.
From the s to the s attempts were made to differentiate between addiction ; and "habituation", a less severe form of psychological adaptation.
In the s the World Health Organization recommended that both terms be abandoned in favour of dependence, which can exist in various degrees of severity.
Addiction is not a diagnostic term in ICD, but continues to be very widely employed by professionals and the general public alike. The term for a practitioner of addiction medicine is "addictionist" See also: The reaction may be predictable, or allergic or idiosyncratic unpredictable.
In the context of substance use, the term includes unpleasant psychological or physical reactions to drug taking.
Al-Anon See mutual-help group; twelve-step group. Ethanol C2H5OH, ethyl alcohol is one of this class of compounds, and is the main psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages.
By extension the term "alcohol" is also used to refer to alcoholic beverages. Ethanol results from the fermentation of sugar by yeast. In the production of spirits by distillation, ethanol is boiled out of the fermented mixture and re-collected as an almost pure condensate. Apart from its use for human consumption, ethanol is used as a fuel,as a solvent, and in chemical manufacturing see alcohol, non-beverage.
Methanol CH3 OHalso known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol is chemically the simplest of the alcohols. It is used as an industrial solvent and also as an adulterant to denature ethanol and make it unfit to drink methylated spirits.
Methanol is highly toxic; depending on the amount consumed, it may produce blurring of vision, blindness, coma, and death. Other non-beverage alcohols that are occasionally consumed, with potentially harmful effects, are isopropanol isopropyl alcohol,often in rubbing alcohol and ethylene glycol used as antifreeze for automobiles.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a type of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) that can cause mental retardation, physical malformations, and multiple learning and behavior problems.
While some symptoms can be treated, the disorder itself is permanent/5(6). Sep 14, · While performing physical assessment of a 12 month-old, the nurse notes that the infant’s anterior fontanelle is still slightly leslutinsduphoenix.com: THE NURSING CORNER.
Home > How to Know When to Seek Treatment for Alcoholism > Five Types of Alcoholics. Five Types of Alcoholics Alcoholics are Not All the Same. Alcoholism is a disease that affects millions of people all over the world.
And, all those people are affected in different ways and have problems with alcohol because of different reasons. Characteristics and Symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome by Teresa Kellerman Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS is a set of mental and physical .
When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, some of it passes to the fetus. Alcohol can prevent enough nutrition and oxygen from getting to the fetus’s vital organs.
Fetal alcohol syndrome can result. Alcohol the Most Lethal Drug - Alcohol is the most lethal drug causing injuries, health problems and even deaths to people worldwide.
Most people think that because cocaine, heroine and bang are not legalized then they are the most dangerous drugs but this is untrue.