Risk and Reality is a joint project of the U. Department of Education ED.
In all three years, more boys than girls were suspected as having autism or were diagnosed with it. The proportions of around 4: A similar disparity is also reflected in the prevalence for boys and girls, with an average for boys of close to 10 per 10, but of 2. It was also found that the prevalence of children assessed as having ASD was twice as high in the more developed Provinces of Iran 8.
The overall Iranian prevalence of 6.
Nonetheless, the reported Iranian rates are much lower than those reported for Sweden [ 20 ], USA [ 21 ], and England [ 22 ] with rates of up to 40 per 10, for children with autistic disorder.
Reasons for Lower Prevalence Various factors might explain the lower prevalence of autism in less developed countries such as Iran. In Iranian culture, a diagnosis of disability is likely to be seen as stigmatizing [ 23 ].
The screening tools that are used in Iran as well as other countries rely heavily on parental reports with limited time and opportunity for assessors to observe and interact with the child and for them to make consensus decisions [ 22 ].
A second reason for lower prevalence rates is that children who have associated conditions such as intellectual disabilities and epilepsy may have been diverted from educational services at an earlier age and, therefore, are not included in the screening for pupils enrolling in elementary schools.
In addition, childhood mortality for more severely affected children could be greater, especially in poorer areas [ 25 ]. All these factors would reduce the prevalence of ASD compared to Western countries with their more developed health and education services. In contrast, Daley [ 2 ] reported that Indian parents rated social difficulties such as lack of interest in people, poor eye contact, and showing no interest in playing with other children as their primary concern.
Also the culture may not have the same environmental influences that trigger ASD-like behaviours in children. A study compared three groups of children with ASD from South Korean, Korean American, and American families to explore the influences of culture with reference to the behaviours of autism [ 27 ].
Expert counselling and clinical services for infants, children, adolescents & families. The University of South Australia has released a new mobile application designed to help people cope with stress on a day-to-day basis. The new app, ‘My Coping Plan,’ developed by UniSA Senior Lecturer Dr Helen Stallman, allows users to create, store and update a personalised coping plan on. Interviews have been used extensively for data collection across all the disciplines of the social sciences & in educational research. There are many types of interviews, as suggested in the literature. However, this paper does not attempt to look at every single type of interview. Instead, it.
Differences were found on social impairments and developmental disturbances between the group of South Korean children and American children. It was concluded that these differences could be the result of differences in symptoms and not only the result of parental perception.
Implementing Screening for ASD The foregoing discussion has implications for the assessment of autism in different cultures. First the tools used to screen for ASD need to be considered.
As Triandis [ 11 ] noted, when cultures are very diverse, different assessment methods may have to be used in each culture.
Since the identification of autistic disorder is based on parent response to an interview, an on-going study is analyzing the ADI-R item data for Iranian children to establish the behaviours that are less present in Iranian children compared to British samples with a diagnosis of autistic disorder and to track the extent to which these items are included in the screening tool—the SCQ [ 15 ].
This may result in a revised screening tool for autism that is more sensitive to the Iranian culture. Meantime, in a comparative study performed in nine Arabic speaking countries [ 28 ], it was found that the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers M-CHAT [ 29 ]—a popular screening tool in Western countries—is an applicable tool to be used for screening children for ASD in Arab countries.Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Adolescents - Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity, an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others (Psych Central ).
The Experience of Single Mothers: Resilience in their Multiple Roles In Australia, between and , on average 20% of families with children less than 15 years of age were headed by a single parent (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS].
Coping Strategies 2 Disability is difficult to define, because there is no single definition or classification system that is used (Aron, Loprest, & Steuerle, ; Wellner, ). These single mothers are put under pressure from about every aspect of their lives, and without a husband there to help raise a family, pay the bills, and to show them love, the single mother .
RISK AND REALITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS. By Joanne P. Brady, Marc Posner, Cynthia Lang and Michael J. Rosati. The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, experiences and coping mechanisms of single mothers raising an autistic child in a low-income community in Western Cape Province.
A qualitative research approach was employed to gain access to the experiences Autism Western Cape has played a crucial role in completing my thesis.