Jung accepted the significant effect of the unconscious processes, but unlike Freud he preferred to emphasize that behaviour… Early life and career Jung was the son of a philologist and pastor. His childhood was lonely, although enriched by a vivid imagination, and from an early age he observed the behaviour of his parents and teachers, which he tried to resolve.
The Nature of Philosophy Methods and definitions Philosophy has almost as many definitions as there have been philosophers, both as a subject matter and an activity. Its investigations are based upon rational thinking, striving to make no unexamined assumptions and no leaps based on faith or pure analogy.
Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason, and there is also disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Some think that philosophy examines the process of inquiry itself.
Others, that there are essentially philosophical propositions which it is the task of philosophy to prove. The issue of the definition of philosophy is nowadays tackled by Metaphilosophy or the philosophy of philosophy.
Modern usage of the term is extremely broad, covering reflection on every aspect of human knowledge and the means by which such knowledge can be acquired.
In the contemporary English-speaking academic world, the term is often used implicitly to refer to analytic philosophy and, in non-English speaking countries, it often refers implicitly to a different, European strain, continental philosophy. Many ancient Greek philosophers distinguished the desire for wisdom from desires for material things, vices, and the satisfaction of bodily desires.
The definition of wisdom for many ancient Greeks would have been about virtue and the desire for knowledge as opposed to false opinions. However, the term is notoriously difficult to define because of the diverse range of ideas that have been labeled as philosophy.
The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy defines it as the study of "the most fundamental and general concepts and principles involved in thought, action, and reality.
However, these points are called into question by the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, which states: Philosophy as a Worldview A "philosophy" may also refer to a general worldview or to a specific ethic or belief that can be utterly unrelated to academic philosophical considerations.
This meaning of the term is perhaps as important as the classical definition, because it affects each human being.
Virtually everyone, knowingly or unknowingly, lives and operates based upon a set of values and beliefs that are often unexpressed and even unconscious. As a result, the may easily be incompatible and contradictory, leaving those who maintain them with a sense of uneasiness.
However, it is most likely to be at odds with other convictions held by that same individual, such as a secret passion for art or love for his family.
Branches, schools and doctrines Branches The ancient Greeks organized the subject into five basic categories: This organization of the subject is still partly in use in Western philosophy today, but the notion of philosophy has become more restricted to the key issues of being, knowledge, and ethics.
There are many places where these subjects overlap, and there are many philosophical ideas that cannot be placed neatly into only one of these categories.
Thus, philosophy involves asking questions such as whether God exists, what is the nature of reality, whether knowledge is possible, and what makes actions right or wrong.
More specifically, each branch has its own particular questions. How do we distinguish arguments from premises to conclusions as valid or invalid?
How can we know that a statement is true or false? How do we know what we know?
What kinds of questions can we answer? Is there a difference between morally right and wrong actions, values, or institutions? Which actions are right and which are wrong? Are values absolute or relative? What are natural laws?
How is it best to live? Is there a normative value on which all other values depend? Do things exist independently of perception? Schools and doctrines Schools, with each their specific set of doctrines, have originated, evolved, and sometimes disappeared centered on specific areas of interest.
Thus, early pre-Socratic Greek philosophy centered on the issue of cosmology, ontologyand generally questions on the origin and nature of reality, while Socrates redirected the focus of philosophy on ethics and epistemology. Generally, each era of human history and each area of the world has concentrated its attention on those fields and topics that were of greatest interest to its particular culture and society.
Few systems, such as those of Plato and Aristotlecover the majority of all possible philosophical endeavors. The interaction between philosophical worldviews can be considered both vertically and horizontally. Horizontally, all thought originating in a particular period and area of the world will share common traits, even though individual thinkers may oppose each other vehemently.
Thus, the middle ages was a time of interest in God and religious questions, while the modern era emphasized issues related to epistemology. African thought has a natural interest in spiritual issues and spiritualismwhile Eastern philosophy emphasizes the harmony and complementarity of humans and nature.
Vertically, certain trends, largely associates with specifics areas of interest e.Free Nature vs. Nurture Essay - Nature vs Nurture The exponential growth of scientific and biological knowledge over time has facilitated the genesis of radical fields of specialization, namely biological determinism, sociobiology and eugenics, just to mention a few.
Masomo ya sheria. Mifumo yote ya kisheria inahusu na masuala ya msingi, lakini kila taifa inaainisha na kubainisha masomo yake ya kisheria kwa njia mbalimbali. Donald Trump’s victory last November was a shattering event for American liberalism.
Surveying the destruction, the liberal Columbia University humanities professor Mark Lilla wrote that “one. Carl Jung, in full Carl Gustav Jung, (born July 26, , Kesswil, Switzerland—died June 6, , Küsnacht), Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud’s leslutinsduphoenix.com proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious.
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