Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand.
Home Employment strategies for developing countries For the developing countries as a whole, the most critical question is how to create quickly hundreds of millions of jobs for the poor with limited purchasing power and limited capital for investment.
The idea that most of these jobs could be created in the corporate sector or by government-sponsored activities has been put to rest. Currently, there are nearly one billion self-employed and unpaid family workers in the world, most of them self-employed farmers in developing countries.
For any strategy to be successful, it must give central importance to self-employment and entrepreneurship, with emphasis on agriculture, agro-industry Economic liberalization in developing countries good small firms in the informal sector. While a single approach will not be applicable to countries and regions of the world in different stages of development, a number of common principles and strategies are widely applicable.
Agriculture as an engine Slightly more than half the world's workforce, of whom 30 per cent are women, are still engaged in agriculture. Agriculture will remain the largest single occupation for the foreseeable future. For too long this sector has been regarded by planners primarily as the source of essential food production.
Historically, agriculture has also played a major role as an engine for economic growth and employment. The Industrial Revolution in nineteenth-century England was spawned by rising productivity and incomes in agriculture that increased demand for manufactured goods.
In post-war Japan, South Korea, and more recently Thailand, rising agricultural productivity and a shift to commercial crops have been dynamic engines for economic growth, job creation, higher incomes and rural purchasing power, wider markets for produce, and the growth of downstream industries.
In Taiwan, this was the result of a conscious strategy to utilize agriculture to stimulate job creation and domestic demand. The vast technological gap between the levels of agricultural productivity achieved by most developing countries and the highest yields achieved globally represents an enormous untapped potential for stimulating economic growth and job creation.
The reduction in agricultural subsidies to farmers in industrial nations called for in the recently signed GATT trade agreements will generate far higher international demand for agricultural exports from developing countries. In the next chapter, we argue strongly for an agriculture-led job creation strategy and cite evidence to show how it can generate sufficient jobs to eradicate poverty in many countries.
New deal for the self-employed Excluding agriculture, there are million self-employed and unpaid family workers in developing countries, representing 37 per cent of the non-agricultural workforce.
Self-employed persons and the small firms which they establish have enormous potential for rapidly generating large numbers of new jobs and raising productivity to increase incomes, provided the right policy measures are in place to support them.
Japan's economic growth has relied heavily on the proliferation of small rural enterprises. Today, 74 per cent of the Japanese workforce is employed by small and medium-sized firms.
In many countries, a large proportion of small enterprises is established by women and employ predominately women. An appropriate mix of policies focusing on access to technology, training, credit, marketing and distribution channels can substantially accelerate self-employment, particularly in the informal sector and rural areas, and among women.
Expand services The service sector represents only 25 per cent of the labour force in developing countries compared with more than 67 per cent in the industrial nations. Contrary to common conception, services can be a major contributor to job growth even in countries at earlier stages of development.
This sector is as amenable to stimulation by government policies as agriculture or manufacturing, and it also provides impetus for the growth of other sectors.
2 1. INTRODUCTION It is a great honor to address this distinguished audience at such a crucial time in world economic affairs. Emerging from the worst international financial and economic crisis. The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury. The term was first used in by English economist John Williamson. The motivation for a country to import goods and services from other countries is perhaps less obvious than its motivation for selling exports (making a profit on goods not consumed by the domestic market).
Supportive policies have enabled trade, transport and other services to generate more than 50 per cent of all jobs in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore. Services have produced more than half of all job growth in many other Asian nations, including private day-care centers, nursery schools and computer training institutes, which are multiplying rapidly in many countries, but can be expanded much further.
India has adopted an innovative, low-cost, self-employment strategy to expand availability of long-distance telecommunications services by setting up small private telephone and fax centers throughout the country. Informal private service enter prises in construction, commerce, food catering, repair and transport have vast growth potential.
Rapid expansion of education, training and public health, especially rural health and education, can also serve as a conscious strategy for employment generation.
Technology of organization Much emphasis is placed on the widening gap in technology between North and South, but the gap in the technology of organization is even greater.The Economic and Social Effects of Financial Liberalization: A Primer for Developing Countries1 Jayati Ghosh For more than a decade now, ﬁ nancial liberalization in developing countries has been.
Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa “If you do something good for me, I important economic sector in developing countries, and because it also receives exten-sive protection in developed countries, such.
The following review examines recent economic and agricultural performances in the four developing country regions and highlights the main policy developments affecting their . For the developing countries as a whole, the most critical question is how to create quickly hundreds of millions of jobs for the poor with limited purchasing power and limited capital for investment.
Globalization helps developing countries to deal with rest of the world increase their economic growth, solving the poverty problems in their country.
are able to supply good . A second type of model commonly used is a gravity model, which assumes that larger economies have a greater pull on trade flows than smaller economies, and that proximity is .