Bountied european immigration

Close to two-thirds of them remained. Following the abolition of slavery in thes, after failed attempts to source much-needed labour through bountied European immigration, the Jamaican Government turned to India and China.

Bountied european immigration

From toover 36, East Indians, mainly of the Hindu faith, were brought to Jamaica. Close to two-thirds of them remained. Following the abolition of slavery in thes, after failed attempts to source much-needed labour through bountied European immigration, the Jamaican Government turned to India and China.

Indian labourers who had already proved successful in Mauritius, were therefore considered to be a good bet for survival in Jamaica. They were, however, paid less than the ex-slaves and therefore originally lodged at the bottom of the society. Ironically, under the terms of their caste system, which valued light skin over dark, they in turn looked down on the ex-slaves.

Relations between the two groups did not therefore begin on the best of footings. The Indian Government took great interest in indentured labour. Recruiting depots were established in Calcutta and Madras and agents were paid significantly less, per recruit, than for a European labourer.

The Government monitored recruitment, the terms and conditions of indentureship, and the guidelines for transport to Jamaica as well as eventual repatriation to India.

Most Indians who signed onto indentureship did so with the hope of returning to their homelands with greater wealth and therefore better social positions. It even appointed a Protector of Immigrants in the country of indenture.

In order to sign onto an indentureship Indians were to appear before a magistrate, hold a government permit and fully understand the conditions of the labour contract. However, the contract was often explained in English and thousands of labourers simply put their thumb marks on the required line, without any true understanding of what awaited them following their journey across the sea.

They came from Northern India, men, 28 women under 30 years old and 33 children under 12 years old, people in all.

The next year, five times more arrived, 1, the following year, almost double that number, 2, At that point, the Indian Government stopped immigration in order to examine the way the system was working. The programme began again 11 years later in and continued without break until it was interrupted by World War I even though by the s the Indian government began to regard the practice with disgust as stories of the hardship encountered by Indians on arrival in the West Indies began to circulate.

On arrival, the labourers were given one suit of clothing, agricultural tools and cooking utensils. Divided into groups of 20 and 40 they were then sent first by mule cart and later by overcrowded freight trains to plantations in Portland, St.

Mary, Clarendon and Westmoreland. Many were forced to walk to the plantation from the nearest railway station. Once on the plantation itself, they were forced to work five to six days a week for one shilling a day and lived in squalid conditions.

Barracks of no more than 3 or 4 rooms were expected to accommodate several individuals and families in each room. Two shillings and six pence were deducted weekly for their rice, flour, dried fish or goat, peas and seasoning rations.

Children received half rations and employers were warned to treat the children well. For example, they were supposed to receive quarterly medical check ups. During the 70 years of Indian immigrant labour, little consideration was shown for their religious beliefs and cultural practices.

For example, non-Christian unions went unrecognized until and many were therefore forced to accept Christianity. The terms of indenture could be as short as one year and as long as five, with two weeks annual leave.

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Labourers could be released from their indenture due to illness, physical disability or in the rare case, manumission or commutation, when the labourer paid the unexpired portion of the contract to their employer.

They could only leave the plantation, however, if in possession of a permit.

Bountied european immigration

If caught without one or if they failed to work because of ill health or any other reason, they often faced fines and even imprisonment. Many suffered greatly from yaws, hookworm and other tropical diseases such as malaria. Although available, quinine, able to prevent malaria, was not often provided by the planters.

When their indentureships were up, they became known as time-expired Indians and issued certificates of freedom that enabled them free access to any part of the island. Two years later and no earlier, they could apply for repatriation. If they did not do so they became ineligible even though they could only be repatriated after having lived in Jamaica for 10 years.

Few made this choice. They effectively lobbied the Government to provide incentives for settlement and to limit their required contribution to repatriation costs.Bountied European Immigration BOUNTIED EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION Known as bountied European immigration, this practice commenced in May of with the arrival of 64 Germans after a day journey from the town of Bremen.

Following the abolition of slavery in thes, after failed attempts to source much-needed labour through bountied European immigration, the Jamaican Government turned to India and China.

Indian labourers who had already proved successful in Mauritius, were therefore considered to be a . Indentureship experience in Jamaica – common suffering of Muslims and Hindus after failed attempts to source much-needed labour through bountied European immigration, the Jamaican Government turned to India and China.

1 Comment on "Indentureship experience in Jamaica – common suffering of Muslims and Hindus" Dorothy Clarke | April. Following the abolition of slavery in thes, after failed attempts to source much-needed labour through bountied European immigration, the Jamaican Government turned to India and China.

Indian labourers, who had already proved successful in Mauritius, were therefore considered to be a good bet for survival in Jamaica.”. In this section, find excerpts and links to The Gleaner's Special Series: Pieces Of The Past authored by Dr.

Rebecca Tortello in Where applicable, updated information can be found throughout the site. Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came: The Africans Up until the early s Jamaica's population was relatively equally mixed between white and.

Bountied European Immigration BOUNTIED EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION Known as bountied European immigration, this practice commenced in May of with the arrival of 64 Germans after a day journey from the town of Bremen.

Jamaica National Heritage Trust celebrates Indian Arrival Day – Jamaica National Heritage Trust