Local warming of the environment by volcanism and impacts would have been sporadic, but there should have been many events of water flowing at the surface of Mars. The exact causes are not well understood but may be related to a combination of processes including loss of early atmosphere, or impact erosion, or both.
Besides silicon and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the Martian crust are iron, magnesiumaluminumcalciumand potassium. Surface geology Main article: Geology of Mars Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygenmetalsand other elements that typically make up rock.
The surface of Mars is primarily composed of tholeiitic basalt although parts are more silica -rich than typical basalt and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth or silica glass. Regions of low albedo suggest concentrations of plagioclase feldsparwith northern low albedo regions displaying higher than normal concentrations of sheet silicates and high-silicon glass.
Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes. Localized concentrations of hematite and olivine have been found. Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System.
Formation of the oldest extant surfaces of Mars, 4. Noachian age surfaces are scarred by many large impact craters. The Tharsis bulge, a volcanic upland, is thought to have formed during this period, with extensive flooding by liquid water late in the period.
Hesperian period named after Hesperia Planum: The Hesperian period is marked by the formation of extensive lava plains.
Amazonian period named after Amazonis Planitia: Amazonian regions have few meteorite impact craters, but are otherwise quite varied.
Olympus Mons formed during this period, with lava flows elsewhere on Mars. Geological activity is still taking place on Mars. The Athabasca Valles is home to sheet-like lava flows created about Mya.
Water flows in the grabens called the Cerberus Fossae occurred less than 20 Mya, indicating equally recent volcanic intrusions. Martian soil Exposure of silica-rich dust uncovered by the Spirit rover The Phoenix lander returned data showing Martian soil to be slightly alkaline and containing elements such as magnesiumsodiumpotassium and chlorine.
These nutrients are found in soils on Earth, and they are necessary for growth of plants.
The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age. The streaks can start in a tiny area, then spread out for hundreds of metres. They have been seen to follow the edges of boulders and other obstacles in their path. The commonly accepted theories include that they are dark underlying layers of soil revealed after avalanches of bright dust or dust devils.
Radar data from Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show large quantities of water ice at both poles July   and at middle latitudes November Huge linear swathes of scoured ground, known as outflow channelscut across the surface in about 25 places.
These are thought to be a record of erosion caused by the catastrophic release of water from subsurface aquifers, though some of these structures have been hypothesized to result from the action of glaciers or lava.
Features of these valleys and their distribution strongly imply that they were carved by runoff resulting from precipitation in early Mars history. Subsurface water flow and groundwater sapping may play important subsidiary roles in some networks, but precipitation was probably the root cause of the incision in almost all cases.
A number of authors have suggested that their formation process involves liquid water, probably from melting ice,   although others have argued for formation mechanisms involving carbon dioxide frost or the movement of dry dust.
Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethiteboth of which sometimes form in the presence of water.
This forms only in the presence of acidic water, which demonstrates that water once existed on Mars.In , William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who popularized the word scientist, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms.
Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were later found to be optical illusions. This remarkable finding suggests that similar forms of life could persist on Mars in some subsurface niche that gets periodically exposed to moisture, the authors wrote in the study.
Finding Candidate Life Forms Using the Analysis of Space Imagery Get hands on with simple image analysis techniques to locate candidate life forms on Mars. pochimikan Blog Post Leave a comment April 28, May 27, 23 Minutes.
endeavors to present his preliminary findings related to the discovery of life on Mars in the form of humanoid beings, animal species, carved statues, built structures, and dead bodies, where they are located in the photograph, and what they ultimately might be.
Definitive evidence of liquid water on Mars doesn’t mean that there’s life on Mars. But it does offer some tangible hope. "This form of molybdenum couldn’t have been available on Earth at the time life first began, because 3 billion years ago, the surface of the Earth had very little oxygen, but Mars did.